Enlarged Facial Pores

Enlarged facial pores are the visible, topographic feature that corresponds to enlarged openings of pilosebaceous follicles. They appear either as empty funnels or filled with cornified cylindrical plugs, i.e., comedones. Many factors contribute to enlarged facial pores. These include: environmental factors such as seasons, relative humidity and temperature; genetic predispo¬sition; aging; skin type; chronic sun exposure (photoaging); and hormonal fluctuations. Some of these are discussed here.

Pores and Oily Skin

Most women who report having enlarged facial pores can be categorized as having an oily skin type. Women with oily skin report difficulty in applying makeup on the shiny, uneven skin surface. They also feel that the oiliness destroys the film-forming properties of skin care and decorative cosmetics, making foundations run and leading to uneven coverage.1

Pore Size and Menstrual Cycle

Research has linked enlarged pores to sebum overprod¬uction2 and increased serum level of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1).3 The large hollow textures of conspicuous pores have been shown to correlate with a highly undulated epidermal-dermal junction around the pore’s opening4 with a presence of discontinuous dermal papillae and isotropic dermal fibers.5 The involvement of the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 signaling pathway and hyperker¬atinization (increased expression of K16) are thought to contribute to the formation of conspicuous facial pores.6

Treatment of Pores

Key strategies for treating enlarged facial pores are to reduce the sebum overprod¬uction and hyper-proliferation of follicular keratino¬cytes. Sebum overprod¬uction is known to compromise the epidermal barrier function of the follicular wall, rendering it permeable to inflammatory substances that might facilitate the changes in epidermal architecture. Adequate skin cleansing, peeling and exfoliation to remove excess sebum are an important part of a skin care routine for individuals having oily skin. However, over-cleansing skin can lead to a compromised barrier function and to the release of sebum from follicular ostia to the skin surface, making skin appear even more shiny and oily. Acid peels maintain their place in the market, having shown mixed efficacy. One efficacy study on AHA peels, performed five times at two-week intervals, showed a reduction in the number of conspicuous facial pores by 34.6%.7 Patients who have enlarged pores are highly recommended to follow the below Montaser protools Cleansing using stem cell cleanser (https://montaser.com.au/product/organic-cleanse/) Exfoliating using exfoliate moist 2-3 times weekly (https://montaser.com.au/product/exfoliate-moist-plus-2-in-1/) Hydrating using facial rejuvenating vitamin B5 serum( https://montaser.com.au/product/facial-rejuvenating-vitamin-b5-serum/) Balancing oil using spot treatment cream (https://montaser.com.au/product/spot-treatment-cream/)

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1. Robert Arbuckle et al, Patient experiences with oily skin: The qualitative development of content for two new patient reported outcome question¬naires, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 6:80 (2008)
2. M Roh, M Han, D Kim and K Chung, Sebum output as a factor contributing to the size of facial pores, Br J Dermatol 155(5) 890-4 (Nov 2006)
3. Y Sugiyama-Nakagiri, A Naoe, A Ohuchi, T Kitahara, Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characte¬ristics including the conspicu¬ousness of facial pores, Int J Cosmet Sci 33(2) 144-9 (Apr 2011)
4. K Sugata, T Nishijima, T Kitahara and Y Takema, Confocal laser microscopic imaging of conspicuous facial pores in vivo: Relation between the appearance and the internal structure of skin, Skin Res Technol 14(2) 208-12 (May 2008)
5. K Mizukoshi and K Takahashi, Analysis of the skin surface and inner structure around pores on the face, Skin Res Technol 20(1) 23-9 (Feb 2014)
6. Y Sugiyama-Nakagiri, A Ohuchi, A Hachiya and T Kitahara, Involvement of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 signaling on the conspicu¬ousness of facial pores, Arch Dermatol Res 302(9) 661-7 (Nov 2010)
7. N Kakudo et al, A novel method to measure conspicuous facial pores using computer analysis of digital-camera-captured images: the effect of glycolic acid chemical peeling, Skin Res 17(4) 427-33 (Nov 2011)